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A multimeric DNA polymerase enzyme complex which differs in composition amongst species; in humans it is a heterotetramer of four subunits of approximately 125, 50, 68 and 12kDa, while in S. cerevisiae, it has three different subunits which form a heterotrimer, and the active enzyme is a dimer of this heterotrimer. Functions in DNA replication, mismatch repair and excision repair. The ordered and organized complex of DNA and protein that forms the chromosome in the nucleus. A multi-component enzymatic machine at the nuclear replication fork, which mediates DNA replication. Includes DNA primase, one or more DNA polymerases, DNA helicases, and other proteins. Conserved heterotrimeric complex of PCNA-like proteins that is loaded onto DNA at sites of DNA damage. A heterotetrameric DNA polymerase complex that catalyzes processive DNA synthesis in the absence of PCNA, but is further stimulated in the presence of PCNA. The complex contains a large catalytic subunit and three small subunits, and is best characterized in Saccharomyces, in which the subunits are named Pol2p, Dpb2p, Dpb3p, and Dpb4p. Some evidence suggests that DNA polymerase epsilon is the leading strand polymerase; it is also involved in nucleotide-excision repair and mismatch repair. A protein complex involved that contains proteins known in Schizosaccharomyces as Swi5 monomers and Swi2, and is involved in mating type switching. A complex of four polypeptides, comprising large and small DNA polymerase alpha subunits and two primase subunits, which catalyzes the synthesis of an RNA primer on the lagging strand of replicating DNA; the smaller of the two primase subunits alone can catalyze oligoribonucleotide synthesis. A multiprotein kinetochore subcomplex that binds to centromeric chromatin and forms part of the inner kinetochore of a chromosome in the nucleus. It helps to recruit outer kinetochore subunits that will bind to microtubules. Nuclear localization arises in some organisms because the nuclear envelope is not broken down during mitosis. In S. cerevisiae, it consists of at least four proteins: Mtw1p, Nnf1p, Nsl1p, and Dsn1. Any of the tandem arrays of rDNA localized at the periphery of the nucleus and protruding into the nucleolus, and associated proteins. May be visible as a single or double spot by DAPI staining. The portion of nuclear chromatin associated with the nucleolus; includes the DNA encoding the ribosomal RNA. A multiprotein complex in yeast consisting of Ctf19p, Okp1p, Mcm21p, and Ame1p. This complex bridges the subunits that are in contact with centromeric DNA and the subunits bound to microtubules during kinetochore assembly. A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell's chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent. A large protein complex, containing around 8-10 subunits in yeast, including Duo1p, Dam1p, Dad1p and Ask1p. The complex forms part of the kinetochore, associates with microtubules when the kinetochore attaches to the spindle, and plays a role in spindle attachment, chromosome segregation and spindle stability. A heterotetrameric protein complex that associates with replication origins, where it is required for the initiation of DNA replication, and with replication forks. Any constituent part of a nuclear chromosome, a chromosome found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. A nuclear complex of five polypeptides that loads the DNA polymerase processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) onto DNA, thereby permitting processive DNA synthesis catalyzed by DNA polymerase delta or epsilon. In Saccharomyces and several other species, the subunits are known as Rfc1p-Rfc5p, although subunit names do not necessarily correspond between different species. A complex comprised of DNA wound around a multisubunit core and associated proteins, which forms the primary packing unit of DNA in the nucleus into higher order structures. A multisubunit complex that is located at the replication origins of a chromosome in the nucleus. The Y-shaped region of a nuclear replicating DNA molecule, resulting from the separation of the DNA strands and in which the synthesis of new strands takes place. Also includes associated protein complexes. A conserved heterotrimeric complex that binds nonspecifically to single-stranded DNA and is required for multiple processes in eukaryotic DNA metabolism, including DNA replication, DNA repair, and recombination. In all eukaryotic organisms examined the complex is composed of subunits of approximately 70, 30, and 14 kDa. The terminal region of a linear chromosome in the nucleus that includes the telomeric DNA repeats and associated proteins. A complex of DNA and protein located at the end of a linear chromosome in the nucleus that protects and stabilizes a linear chromosome. The region of a condensed chromosome in the nucleus that includes the centromere and associated proteins, including the kinetochore. In monocentric chromosomes, this region corresponds to a single area of the chromosome, whereas in holocentric chromosomes, it is evenly distributed along the chromosome. A hexameric protein complex required for the initiation and regulation of DNA replication. A proteinaceous scaffold found between homologous chromosomes during meiosis. A structural unit of the synaptonemal complex that spans the regions between the lateral elements and connects them. A structure composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins (e.g. histones) that carries hereditary information. A cohesin complex required for cohesion between sister chromatids that remain in the nucleus. A multisubunit protein complex that plays a central role in the condensation of chromosomes that remain in the nucleus. A structural unit of the synaptonemal complex found between the lateral elements. A proteinaceous core found between sister chromatids during meiotic prophase. A chromosome found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. A protein complex required for heterochromatin assembly; contains an Argonaute homolog, a chromodomain protein, and at least one additional protein; named for RNA-induced initiation of transcriptional gene silencing. A connection formed between chromatids, visible during meiosis, thought to be the point of the interchange involved in crossing-over. A heterodimeric protein complex that possesses an endonuclease activity that specifically cleaves certain types of branched DNA structures; because such structures often form during the replication ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats, the complex plays a role in the maintenance of rDNA. The subunits are known as Slx1 and Slx 4 in budding and fission yeasts, and are conserved in eukaryotes. An electron dense structure that is associated with meiotic chromosomes. Structures of variable diameter visible in the nucleoplasm by electron microscopy, mainly observed near the border of condensed chromatin. The fibrils are enriched in RNA, and are believed to be sites of pre-mRNA splicing and polyadenylylation representing the in situ form of nascent transcripts. A proteinaceous scaffold associated with S. pombe chromosomes during meiotic prophase. Linear elements have a structure related to but not equivalent to the synaptonemal complex. A conserved DNA recombinase mediator complex that contains two Swi5 monomers and one Sfr1 monomer in Schizosaccharomyces, or orthologs thereof (e.g. Sae3p and Mei5p in Saccharomyces). The region of a condensed nuclear chromosome kinetochore most external to centromeric DNA; this outer region mediates kinetochore-microtubule interactions. The region of a condensed nuclear chromosome kinetochore closest to centromeric DNA; this layer may help define underlying centromeric chromatin structure and position of the kinetochore on the chromosome. Any constituent part of the nucleus, a membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. A constituent part of an intracellular organelle, an organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, occurring within the cell. Includes constituent parts of the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, vesicles, ribosomes and the cytoskeleton but excludes the plasma membrane. Any constituent part of a chromosome, a structure composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins (e.g. histones) that carries hereditary information. A protein complex that contains the GINS complex, Cdc45p, and the heterohexameric MCM complex, and that is involved in unwinding DNA during replication. A protein complex conserved in eukaryotes and associated with the replication fork; the complex stabilizes stalled replication forks and is thought to be involved in coordinating leading- and lagging-strand synthesis and in replication checkpoint signaling. A multisubunit complex that is located at the centromeric region of a condensed chromosome in the nucleus and provides an attachment point for the spindle microtubules.

View Gene Ontology (GO) Term


Name: nuclear chromosome part
Acc: GO:0044454
Aspect: Cellular Component
Desc: Any constituent part of a nuclear chromosome, a chromosome found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Proteins in PDR annotated with:
   This term: 0
   Term or descendants: 1065 [Search]


GO:0044454 - nuclear chromosome part (interactive image map)

YRC Informatics Platform - Version 3.0
Created and Maintained by: Michael Riffle