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Events resulting in the formation of a multilayered cellular sheath surrounding an invader and thus preventing its development. This defense mechanism is often seen in insects in response to nematodes or parasitoids, which are too large to be phagocytosed by individual hemocytes. In some organisms the capsule is blackened due to melanization. Phagocytosis occurring as the result of a ligand binding an immune response cell surface activating receptor. A process directed at removing immune complexes from the body. Immune complexes are clusters of antibodies bound to antigen, to which complement may also be fixed, and which may precipitate or remain in solution. The regulated exocytosis of secretory granules by a leukocyte. Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of an immune effector process. Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of an immune effector process. Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of an immune effector process. A phase of elevated metabolic activity, during which oxygen consumption increases made as part of a defense response ; this leads to the production, by an NADH dependent system, of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. The directed killing of a target cell by a leukocyte. Any process involved in the activation of any of the steps of the complement cascade, which allows for the direct killing of microbes, the disposal of immune complexes, and the regulation of other immune processes; the initial steps of complement activation involve one of three pathways, the classical pathway, the alternative pathway, and the lectin pathway, all of which lead to the terminal complement pathway. Any process specifically pertinent to the functioning of integrated living units: cells, tissues, organs, and organisms. A process is a collection of molecular events with a defined beginning and end. Reactions triggered in response to the presence of a virus that act to protect the cell or organism. Any process of the immune system that occurs as part of an immune response. Any immune system process that functions in the calibrated response of an organism to a potential internal or invasive threat. The synthesis or release of any molecular mediator of the immune response following an immunological stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels. Any process involved in the carrying out of an immune response by a leukocyte. The formation of nodular inflammatory lesions, usually small or granular, firm, persistent, well-structured, and containing compactly grouped T lymphocytes and modified phagocytes such as epithelioid cells, giant cells, and other macrophages. Granuloma formation represents a chronic inflammatory response initiated by various infectious and noninfectious agents. The center of a granuloma consists of fused macrophages, which can become necrotic. The process by which a microorganism (or other particulate material) is rendered more susceptible to phagocytosis by coating with an opsonin, a blood serum protein such as a complement component or antibody. A change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus. Any process involved in the development or functioning of the immune system, an organismal system for calibrated responses to potential internal or invasive threats.

View Gene Ontology (GO) Term


Name: immune effector process
Acc: GO:0002252
Aspect: Biological Process
Desc: Any process of the immune system that occurs as part of an immune response.
Proteins in PDR annotated with:
   This term: 0
   Term or descendants: 612 [Search]


GO:0002252 - immune effector process (interactive image map)

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Created and Maintained by: Michael Riffle